Lennham Client Merchandise Broadcasts Publication of Manuscripts Describing Medical and Non-Medical PK and Security of d9-Caffeine

CONCORD, Mass.–()–Lennham Client Merchandise, a start-up centered on the artistic use of deuterium chemistry to enhance well-known merchandise, right now introduced the publication of two manuscripts describing the scientific and non-clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) and security of d9-caffeine.

The primary manuscript, printed in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, studies the outcomes of the first-ever human PK examine evaluating d9-caffeine to an analogous dose of regular caffeine at two dose ranges. The examine demonstrated that d9-caffeine produced an analogous time to peak, a ~30% greater peak publicity, and a ~4-fold greater total publicity than regular caffeine. d9-Caffeine additionally demonstrated a 5-10-fold decrease relative publicity to the first metabolites of caffeine. Outcomes point out that each d9-caffeine and regular caffeine had been nicely tolerated, and no antagonistic occasions for insomnia had been reported. The complete manuscript will be learn right here.

The second manuscript, printed in Meals and Chemical Toxicology, studies on research analyzing the non-clinical security, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics of d9-caffeine. The research reveal that d9-caffeine has related adenosine receptor exercise to caffeine, is non-mutagenic, and crosses the blood-brain barrier in mammals. The complete manuscript will be learn right here.

“In 2019, Lennham got down to enhance caffeine by creating an enhanced model that gives the identical advantages however lasts longer. Our peer-reviewed publications reveal that now we have achieved that purpose,” stated Bradford C. Sippy, Founding father of Lennham. “Lennham believes that d9-caffeine has the potential to be a singular, extremely differentiated product that might be utilized in a number of purposes, together with as an alternative choice to regular caffeine in vitality drinks. The publication of those manuscripts is a crucial step in Lennham’s pursuit of a normal acknowledged as protected (GRAS) designation to be used of d9-caffeine as a meals and beverage ingredient.”

About Caffeine

Caffeine is probably the most broadly consumed psychoactive agent on this planet. Whereas caffeine is a protected1,2 and efficient stimulant, it’s rapidly cleared by the physique following a speedy onset, even at excessive doses, inflicting what is thought colloquially because the “caffeine crash”. Caffeine is primarily metabolized by the CYP450 isoenzyme CYP1A2. Genetic polymorphs of CYP1A2 exist that will affect the metabolism of caffeine.3

About d9-Caffeine

d9-Caffeine is a longer-lasting model of caffeine that’s enriched with deuterium. Not like extended-release caffeine merchandise, which have failed to attain the Tmax and Cmax of caffeine, d9-caffeine has demonstrated considerably differentiated pharmacokinetics, together with an analogous Tmax, greater Cmax, longer half-life, and decreased relative publicity to the first metabolites of caffeine. d9-Caffeine has been proven to be equally metabolized in gradual vs. quick metabolizers of caffeine.

Deuterium is a naturally occurring, secure, non-toxic isotope of hydrogen, with an extra neutron in its nucleus. Selectively substituting protium (probably the most prevalent type of hydrogen) with deuterium, or deuteration, is a technique to alter a molecule’s metabolic profile whereas sustaining the core pharmacodynamic traits.

Deuteration strengthens the chemical bond between two parts. Relying on the place deuterium is positioned, it has the potential to change the general metabolism of a molecule, or to scale back conversion to particular, undesirable metabolites.

Deuteration has been efficiently leveraged in a number of authorised and/or late-stage pharmaceutical merchandise.

About Lennham Client Merchandise

Lennham Client Merchandise is a Division of Lennham Prescription drugs. Lennham is a privately held, clinical-stage life sciences firm centered on the artistic software of deuterium chemistry to enhance upon extremely utilized and well-characterized compounds. Based in 2019, Lennham’s distinctive method to deuteration has enabled it to quickly develop a pipeline of product candidates, together with deuterium-enriched types of caffeine, testosterone, and psilocybin.

For extra data, please go to www.lennham.com.


  1. van Dam RM et al. Espresso, Caffeine, and Well being. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 23;383(4):369-378.
  2. FDA Code of Federal Laws. 21CFR182.1180. Accessed 03 Jun 2021.
  3. Nehlig A. Interindividual Variations in Caffeine Metabolism and Components Driving Caffeine Consumption. Pharmacological Evaluations. 2018, 70:384-411.


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